learn German online free: conjugation and the tenses - classification of verbs - list of verbs - Stammformen - principal part
Topics

-->



<h1>Tempus - a linguistic depiction of time</h1>
<h2>A classification of German verbs</h2>




<p>
Now that we have covered the auxiliaries and their use we come to another fundamental subject matter:
the classification of verbs.
Note the three classes of verbs:
</p>


<ul>
<li>1. unregelmäßige Verben (irregular verbs)</li>
<li>2. starke verben (literally: <i>strong verbs</i>)</li>
<li>3. schwache Verben (literally: <i>weak verbs</i>)</li>
</ul>



<p>
Again the terms <i>weak</i> and <i>strong</i> pertain to the expressiveness of the verbs. Irregular verbs can be defined as verbs
that don't follow the line of either starke or schwache Verben.
The verb <i>sein</i> for example is an irregular verb because there are too many modifications of the stem to call this word regular:
</p>


<div>Ich bin da. (I am there.)</div>
<div>Er ist da. (He is there.)</div>
<div>Wir sind da. (We are there.)</div>

<p>
The stem changes completely while inflecting <i>sein</i>, which is why we call this verb irregular. Starke Verben are fairly regular, only that the vowel
of the stem tends to change:
<i>laufen, läuft, lief, gelaufen</i> are the <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Principal_parts" target="_blank">principal parts</a> that show the modifications of the stem (Stammformen). You will need to learn all the Stammformen
of the starke verben because everything else can be deduced from the Stammformen. But don't worry, I have extracted the most important verbs for you and you
will find them all on this page.
Schwache Verben know no such mutation of the vowel: <i>leben, lebt, lebte, gelebt</i> (to live). You only have to learn the infinitive.
If you look at the starke Verben very closely, you will see that a variation
occurs in the second (du = you)
and third (er, sie, es = he, she, it) person singular of the Präsens. The Partizip of the starke Verben is composed by ge+[stem]+en.
The Partizip of the schwache Verben is composed by ge+[stem]+t.
</p>







<table border="1">
<colgroup span="5">
</colgroup>

<tr>
<td>ich</td>
<td>bau</td>
<td>-e</td>
<td>lauf</td>
<td>-e</td>

</tr>
<tr>
<td>du</td>
<td>bau</td>
<td>-st</td>
<td class="gelb">l&auml;uf</td>
<td>-st</td>

</tr>
<tr>
<td>sie</td>
<td>bau</td>
<td>-t</td>
<td class="gelb">l&auml;uf</td>
<td>-t</td>

</tr>
<tr>
<td>&nbsp; </td>
<td>&nbsp; </td>
<td>&nbsp; </td>
<td>&nbsp; </td>
<td>&nbsp; </td>

</tr>
<tr>
<td>wir</td>
<td>bau</td>
<td>-en</td>
<td>lauf</td>
<td>-en</td>

</tr>
<tr>
<td>ihr</td>
<td>bau</td>
<td>-t</td>
<td>lauf</td>
<td>-t</td>

</tr>
<tr>
<td>sie</td>
<td>bau</td>
<td>-en</td>
<td>lauf</td>
<td>-en</td>

</tr>
</table>


<p>Schwache Verben have one and the same stem:</p>

<p>

bauen baut baute gebaut<br />
kucken kuckt kuckte gekuckt<br />
holen holt holte geholt

</p>

<p>Starke Verben have the vowel mutations we spoke about:</p>

<p>
laufen l&auml;uft lief gelaufen<br />
sprechen spricht sprach gesprochen<br />
essen isst a&szlig; gegessen
</p>



<p>The following verbs are the most important starke verben, which you'll have to learn. In this table you will only find the
most relevant meaning.
</p>

<table border="1">
<colgroup span="4">
</colgroup>
<tr class="blau">
<td style="font-size:80%">Infinitiv</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">Pr&auml;sens</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">Pr&auml;teritum</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">Partizip</td>
</tr>


<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">beginnen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">beginnt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">begann</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">begonnen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">begin</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">begins</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">began</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">begun</td>
</tr>


<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">bei&szlig;en</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bei&szlig;t</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">biss</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gebissen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">bite</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bites</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bit</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bitten</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">biegen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">biegt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bog</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gebogen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">bend</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bends</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bent</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bent</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">bieten</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bietet</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bot</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geboten</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">offer</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">offers</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">offered</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">offered</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">bleiben</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bleibt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">blieb</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geblieben</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">stay</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">stays</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">stayed</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">stayed</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">brechen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">bricht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">brach</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gebrochen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">break</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">breaks</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">broke</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">broken</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">dringen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">dringt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">drang</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gedrungen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">penetrate</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">penetrates</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">penetrated</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">penetrated</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">empfinden</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">empfindet</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">empfand</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">empfunden</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">feel</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">feels</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">felt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">felt</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">essen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">isst</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">a&szlig;</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gegessen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">eat</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">eats</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">ate</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">eaten</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">fahren</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">f&auml;hrt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fuhr</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gefahren</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">drive</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">drives</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">drove</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">driven</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">fallen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">f&auml;llt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fiel</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gefallen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">fall</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">falls</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fell</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fallen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">fangen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">f&auml;ngt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fing</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gefangen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">catch</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">catches</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">caught</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">caught</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">finden</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">findet</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fand</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gefunden</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">find</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">finds</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">found</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">found</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">fliegen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fliegt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flog</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geflogen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">fly</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flies</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flew</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flown</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">flie&szlig;en</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flie&szlig;t</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">floss</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geflossen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">flow</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flows</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flowed</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">flowed</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">frieren</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">friert</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">fror</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gefroren</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">freeze</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">freezes</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">froze</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">frozen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">geben</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gibt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gab</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gegeben</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">give</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gives</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gave</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">given</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">gehen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">ging</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gegangen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">go</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">goes</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">went</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gone</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">genie&szlig;en</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">genie&szlig;t</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">genoss</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">genossen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">enjoy</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">enjoys</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">enjoyed</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">enjoyed</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">gewinnen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gewinnt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gewann</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gewonnen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">win</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">wins</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">won</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">won</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">gie&szlig;en</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gie&szlig;t</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">goss</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gegossen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">pour</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">pours</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">poured</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">poured</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">graben</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gr&auml;bt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">grub</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gegraben</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">dig</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">digs</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">dug</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">dug</td>
</tr>


<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">halten</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">h&auml;lt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hielt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gehalten</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">hold</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">holds</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">held</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">held</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">h&auml;ngen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">h&auml;ngt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hing</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gehangen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">hang</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hangs</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hung</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hung</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">hei&szlig;en</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hei&szlig;t</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hie&szlig;</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gehei&szlig;en</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%" colspan="4">be called</td>

</tr>


<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">helfen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hilft</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">half</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geholfen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">help</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">helps</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">helped</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">helped</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">kommen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">kommt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">kam</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gekommen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">come</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">comes</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">came</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">come</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">lassen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">l&auml;sst</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">lie&szlig;</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gelassen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">let</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">lets</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">let</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">let</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">laufen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">l&auml;uft</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">lief</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gelaufen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">run</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">runs</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">ran</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">run</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">lesen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">liest</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">las</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gelesen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">read</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">reads</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">read</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">read</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">nehmen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">nimmt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">nahm</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">genommen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">take</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">takes</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">took</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">taken</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">riechen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">riecht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">roch</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gerochen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">smell</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">smells</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">smellt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">smellt</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">schlafen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schl&auml;ft</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schlief</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geschlafen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">sleep</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">sleeps</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">slept</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">slept</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">schlagen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schl&auml;gt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schlug</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geschlagen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">hit</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hits</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hit</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">hit</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">schlie&szlig;en</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schlie&szlig;t</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schloss</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geschlossen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">close</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">closes</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">closed</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">closed</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">schreiben</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schreibt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">schrieb</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">geschrieben</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">write</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">writes</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">wrote</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">written</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">sehen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">sieht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">sah</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gesehen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">see</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">sees</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">saw</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">seen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">sprechen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">spricht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">sprach</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gesprochen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">speak</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">speaks</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">spoke</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">spoken</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">stehen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">steht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">stand</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gestanden</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">stand</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">stands</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">stood</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">stood</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">tragen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">tr&auml;gt</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">trug</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">getragen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">carry</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">carries</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">carried</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">carried</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">vergessen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">vergisst</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">verga&szlig;</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">vergessen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">forget</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">forgets</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">forgot</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">forgotten</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">verlieren</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">verliert</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">verlor</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">verloren</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">lose</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">loses</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">lost</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">lost</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">waschen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">w&auml;scht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">wusch</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gewaschen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">wash</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">washes</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">washed</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">washed</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">werden</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">wird</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">wurde</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">(ge)worden</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%" colspan="4">become, get, be</td>

</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">ziehen</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">zieht</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">zog</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">gezogen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td style="font-size:80%">pull</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">pulls</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">pulled</td>
<td style="font-size:80%">pulled</td>
</tr>
</table>

<p width="0" height="1em">Differences stark/schwach in the Präteritum:</p>





<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ImageObject" class="schema_image">


<p itemprop="description">
The Präteritum of the schwache Verben is composed by [stem]+t+[suffix]. The Präteritum of the starke Verben is composed
by [stem]+suffix while the first and third person singular have no suffix.

<a itemprop="thumbnailUrl" href="../images/thumbnails/thumb_Praeteritum.png">&nbsp;</a>

</p>



<p style="text-align:center;">
<img src="../images/Praeteritum.png" width="619" height="833" alt="" border="0">
</p>


<span itemprop="name">Table:</span>
<span>&nbsp; </span>
<span itemprop="educationalUse">quick info on forms (conjugation) of the German Präteritum</span>
<span>&nbsp;(</span>
<span itemprop="inLanguage">de</span>
<span>,</span>
<span itemprop="width">619</span>
<span>&nbsp; </span>
<span>x</span>
<span>&nbsp; </span>
<span itemprop="height">833</span>
<span>);&nbsp; </span>
<span>Keywords:&nbsp; </span>
<span itemprop="keywords">Präteritum, tense, starke und schwache Verben, forms, Bildung, Konjugation, conjugation, German, grammar;</span>

</div>













<p style="clear:both;">


Now let us see what we have got: These are about 50 verbs with four principal parts each. Yes, in German there are four, in English three.
You'll need one extra part for the
Präsens as we have seen. That makes 200 forms you'll have to memorize. There seem to exist around 170 starke Verben, but most of them you had better
not waste your time with as they are very old verbs. I am just noting
this down for you to see how much energy you'll have to invest into learning good German;
do you still remember that I promised in the beginning to empower your German perfectly with
as little effort as possible? For that we'll have to learn not everything, but effectively. I plan to implement some exercises via javascript, let's
see if we can create even more ease, learning German.
</p>


<p>
On the next page I have noted some determiners, these are very important ones, which you'll have to learn, too, and also the adjectives.
I'll explain this later. The second part of the next chapter is a complete list of all tenses of the German language.
If you learn the basic patterns of how to form the Präsens or
the Präteritum for schwache and starke Verben, then you won't have to learn all the
tables by heart. But do take a look at the whole structure.
By understanding this overview, you'll gain a more intuitive understanding.
This will enable you to remember the patterns easier.
</p>

<h2>The modal verbs (die Modalverben)</h2>

<p>
The principal parts are very important to form the tenses. To form the tenses of the schwache verben you'll only have to learn the infinitive.
Now I'll show you what else you can do with the Infinitiv. As we said, the Infinitiv, like the Partizip, too, is a component, not a tense.
Come to think of it, the Infinitiv is often combined with modal verbs, just like in English. The English construction to form the future
tense uses the infinitive, too. For example like this sentence: <i>I will come.</i> <i>Will</i> is the modal verb, <i>come</i> the infinitive.
In German this is: <i>Ich werde kommen.</i> <i>Werde</i> is the modal verb, <i>kommen</i> the Infinitiv. So this is easy to remember.
And like in English, too,
you can use different modal verbs with the infinitive. To remember this easier I don't see this structure as the "future tense", but
just a very special construction with very special verbs, the modal verbs:
<br>
<br>
Ich kann kommen. (I can come.)
<br>
Ich muss kommen. (I must come.)
<br>
Ich will kommen. (I want to come.)
<br>
Ich werde kommen (I will come.)
<br>
Ich darf kommen (I am allowed to come.)
<br>
Ich soll kommen. (I should come.)


</p>



<p>
So now you have learnt how to use modal verbs of German.
The modal verbs are somewhat complex. We will
return to them later on again.
</p>



<p>
Now I will show you how to form the Infinitiv Perfekt, this too being a component. You have seen how to form the Perfekt tense, for example:
Er hat ein Haus gebaut. You extract the verbal components: <i>hat gebaut</i>. Then you make an Infinitiv out of the finite
auxiliary: <i>haben gebaut</i>. And
then you just place the Infinitiv at the end: <i>gebaut haben</i>. <a href="https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/voilà">voilà</a> that's it.
</p>
<p>Some more examples:</p>
<p>

getrunken haben
<br>
gefallen sein
<br>
gesprochen haben
<br>
gefahren sein, etc. etc.


</p>



<p>Examples:</p>

<p>Ich werde das morgen geschafft haben. (Tomorrow I will have completed this.)</p>
<p>Ich werde bald das Buch durchgelesen haben. (I will soon have finished reading the book.)</p>



<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ImageObject" class="schema_image">


<p itemprop="description">
And what do we do with it? Just like in English you can now combine this Infinitiv Perfekt with the modal verbs. In English for example you say
(that is the future perfect): <i>I will have done it</i>. It is the same method you apply.
</p>



<img src="../images/modals.png" width="800" height="533" alt="" border="0">


<span itemprop="name">Modal verbs,</span>
<span>&nbsp; </span>
<span itemprop="educationalUse">depiction of their syntactic arrangement and constituents</span>
<span>&nbsp;(</span>
<span itemprop="inLanguage">en</span>
<span>,</span>
<span itemprop="width">800</span>
<span>x</span>
<span itemprop="height">533</span>
<span>); </span>

<span>Keywords:</span>
<span itemprop="keywords">Modal verbs, Modalverben, usage of the modal verbs, Gebrauch und Anordnung der Modalverben, Struktur, Syntax</span>

</div>

<h2 style="clear:both;">The pluperfect</h2>



<p>
What else can you do with the principal forms?
You can form the pluperfekt, called in German Plusquamperfekt, meaning more than Perfekt. The name is derived from the fact that the Plusquamperfekt
is a tense expressing a past before the past, that is to say that something took place before an event that happened in the past, for example:

<br>
<br>
After he had brushed his teeth he went to bed.
<br>
Nachdem er seine Zähne geputzt hatte, ging er ins Bett.


<br>
<br>
You form this tense with the Präteritum of haben (have) and a Partizip.

</p>




<br>
<br>
<br>
<a href="http://www.primitivecode.com/index.php?topic=-German+course-part+4-tables-declension-of-nouns-cases-of-possessive-pronouns-determiners-adjectives-complete-conjugation-verbs-form-case-">
&gt;&gt; continue</a>

<br>
<br>
<br>



<?php $Weblog->share ();?>

Sneak peek of the server side code