German course - part 1c - giving and receiving - possession - the dative and the genitive - der Dativ und der Genitiv - case
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<h1>German course - part 1c - giving and receiving - possession - the dative and the genitive - der Dativ und der Genitiv - case</h1>
<h2>What's Dativ and Genitiv do?</h2>



<p>

The terms are very abstract because in grammar we want to widen the scope of these
terms. But in fact it is a simple relationship between two things
or persons in which one person (or thing) is doing something to another person or thing.


</p>

<p>

I can feel you are getting nervous. You must be asking:"Why is he talking
about case all the time? And what's in it for me?
The other two cases I shall therefore cover briefly, so that we can
start to really learn some words.
You will soon see that German is a language based on systemic
case and in time this knowledge will come in handy.
The next case I want to show you is the indirect object or the dative case,
the German Dativ.
It doesn't exist in English, so again first I'll give an abstract
outline and then an example. The name dative is self-explanatory,
derived from
Latin and it means "pertaining to something given".

</p>



<div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/ImageObject" class="schema_image">


<p itemprop="description">
The constituent in the dative
generally is a person to whom something is given:

<br>
<i>The teacher gives the text to the girl.</i>
<br>
<i>Die Lehrerin gibt dem Mädchen den Text.</i>
<br>

The phrase "to the girl" nenotes that the girl receives something from the
denominative noun, the teacher. In German the recipient (to the girl)
is in the dative case (dem Mädchen).
</p>



<img src="../images/teacher.png" width="799" height="533" alt="teacher in America. Is she a teacher of the German language?" title="Is she a teacher of German grammar. Perhaps on the paper she has noted the declension tables of the German determiners.">
<span itemprop="name">A teacher in America</span>
<span>,&nbsp; </span>
<span itemprop="educationalUse">depiction</span>
<span>&nbsp; (</span>
<span itemprop="inLanguage">en</span>
<span>,</span>
<span itemprop="width">1059</span>
<span>x</span>
<span itemprop="height">706</span>
<span>): </span>
<span itemprop="keywords">&nbsp; Teacher, learning, teaching, language, school, university, lesson, children</span>


</div>













<p style="clear:both;">Let us list all cases of "das Mädchen". (I hate offering fragments.)</p>



<table>
<tr>
<th>Case</th>
<th>das Mädchen (the girl)</th>
</tr>

<tr>
<th colspan="2">Singular</th>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Nominativ</td>
<td>das Mädchen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Akkusativ</td>
<td>das Mädchen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Dativ</td>
<td>dem Mädchen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Genitiv</td>
<td>des Mädchens</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th colspan="2">Plural</th>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Nominativ</td>
<td>die Mädchen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Akkusativ</td>
<td>die Mädchen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Dativ</td>
<td>den Mädchen</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>Genitiv</td>
<td>der Mädchen</td>
</tr>

</table>

<p>
The last case is the genitive case (der Genitiv).
It has a wide range of functions, but mainly expresses possession.
In English you find it too:
<br>
<br>
Dave's book is really very good.
<br>
Daves Buch ist wirklich sehr gut.
<br>
<br>
Unlike in English you don't need the apostrophe to seperate the noun and the "-s".
I can hear you asking:"What is the sense of all this?" Your question is definitely
justified as it would suffice to align words and let the context do the rest.
If you take a sidelong glance at Latin, you find there a language that
has no rules for laying down patterns of word order whatsoever.
They have a fifth case called the ablative which is in charge of
all sorts of adverbials, the peripheries. The
reason is that case serves to distinguish all parts in
a sentence for which
reason the word order has no significance whatsoever.
Some aspects of German can be compared to Latin as
every constituent has a certain syntactical function which we have already
broken down earlier. And German doesn't rely that much on word
order, it does not require it, but still, word
oder plays an important role. Please don't ask me why there is the marking of
case via the determiner. It simply is there and we have to learn it. But remember that I promised to
not give you any useless material to learn.

</p>


<p>


Unfortunately , if we want to master German, we must learn how to deal with this
systemization of parts.
Now that we have laid out all the (main) functions of case,
let's move on together to learn more about its phenomena, so the next question is
how does case manifest itself?




</p>




<a href="http://www.primitivecode.com/index.php?topic=-German+course-part+1d-the-manifestations-of-case-the-bulk-list">
&gt;&gt; continue</a>









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